ESCAPE prides itself on utilizing unbiased sources for its information. Please browse the topics by subject and note the author/source of each study or report.
Recidivism: the statistical chance of a convicted sex offender committing another sex crime.
Summary: The overall recidivism rate of convicted sex offenders is extremely low - most studies averaging between 3.5 to 8.5%. This is notably lower than almost all other felony offenders. Additionally, the majority of these studies have averaged the recidivism rates of all types of sexual offenses, which can range from child molestation to public urination. Diagnosed pedophiles and violent rapists have been found to have higher-than-average recidivism. Many of these studies have not differentiated between those offenders and others.
Sex Offender Recidivism (Harris and Hanson, 2004)
Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released from Prison (2003, US Department of Justice)
Sex Offender Ten-Year-Recidivism (State of Ohio, 2001)
Sex Offender Recidivism in Washington State (Washington State, 2005)
Sex Offender Recidivism 1984-1998 (Arizona Department of Corrections, 2007)
Sex Offender Recidivism Report (State of Minnesota, 2007)
Criminal Recidivism in Alaska (Alaska Judicial Council, 2007)
Sex Offender Recidivism (California Sex Offender Management Board, 2008)
Recidivism Rates Compared 2005-2007 (Indiana Dept of Corrections)
Sex Offender Population, Recidivism and Assessment (New York State, 2007)
Recidivism of Sex Offenders Released in 2001 (Orchowsky and Iwama, 2009)
Sex Offender Recidivism in Maine (Maine Statistical Analysis Center, 2010)
Recidivism of Sex Offenders (2001, Center for Sex Offender Management)
Sex Offender Recidivism Analysis 1983-2010 (Caldwell, 2010)
Sex Offender Recidivism in Missouri (Institute of Public Policy, 2006)
Additional studies are available upon request.
Sex Offender Restrictions: this covers residency restrictions, child safety zones, employment restrictions, and similar measures that restrict where convicted sex offenders can live, work, and even travel. Also included are related legislation such as the registry itself and community notification. Here you can learn what type of restrictions exist and the effect they have been found to have on the community. The specific restrictions vary widely in different areas. There is some debate about the legality of such restrictions, and in some areas the restrictions have been abolished because they conflict with the state's legislative privilege over a county's or town's ability to regulate sex crime. Because such restrictions are relatively new, there are significantly fewer studies on their effectiveness. However, virtually all of the studies that do exist assert that at best, restrictions do nothing to prevent or reduce sex crimes, and at worse, increase the chances of re-offense.
Community Notification and Education (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2001)
Managing the Employment of Sex Offenders Under Community Supervision (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2002)
Managing the Challenges of Sex Offender Reentry (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2007)
Sexual Offender Residence Restrictions (Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, 2010)
Sex Offender Residence Restrictions (Jill Levenson, Ph.D.)
Sex Offenders' Residency Restrictions (Sandra Norman-Eady, 2007)
The Impact of Sex Offender Residence Restrictions (Levenson and Cotter)
The Legitimacy of Sex Offender Residence and Employment Restrictions (Joseph Lester, 2006)
Child Safety Zones (Please note, we do NOT support the assertions or share the viewpoints of the individuals quoted on this website. This link is provided to illustrate the definition of "child safety zone" ONLY.)
Exclusion Zones (employment restrictions) (Please note we do NOT support this proposal or the legislator responsible for it. This link is provided to illustrate the definition of "exclusion zones" ONLY.)
Additional studies and reports available upon request.
Prevention and Risk Assessment: Perhaps the most compelling reasons that sex crime legislation needs major form: studies that clearly show who is most at risk to commit sexual abuse (is not a registered sex offender!). This is a collection of information that supports our belief that prevention, awareness and education MUST be the basis for any legislation as well as the priority for any society that values the well-being of its members. Close examination of most media reports on child sexual abuse and child sexual abuse and murder reveals that more often than not, the perpetrator was not a convicted sex offender or on any registry, but had convenient access to the child and was often acquainted with them or their family.
Sexual Assault of Young Children as Reported to Law Enforcement (US Department of Justice, 2000) In this study, it is revealed that the younger the victim, the more likely they are to know their abuser. 90% of children between 12-17 knew their abuser, 95% of children between 6 and 12 knew their abuser, and 97% of children under 6 knew their abuser. Even adult victims 18 and over knew their attackers 73% of the time.
Symptoms of Child Sexual Abuse and more (National Center for Victims of Crime) National Center for Victims of Crime provides some warning signs that a child is being abused and how to react.
Rape and Sexual Assault: Reporting to Police (US Department of Justice, 1992-2000) Although there is some disagreement over the actual percentage of sexual crimes that are not reported to police, for the most part everyone agrees that a large number of sex crimes are never reported. One of the biggest factors is the relationship between victim and offender, and according to this study, the closer the victim is to the offender (whether intimately or through family), the less likely they are to report the crime.
Pedophilia definition and characteristics Perhaps one of the most widely misunderstood and loosely applied terms associated with sex crime and sex offenders: PEDOPHILE. This extended definition clarifies what characteristics an individual must have to be diagnosed as a pedophile, as well as explains how they commonly gain access to victims.
Child Molestation Prevention Study (Gene Abel, M. D., 2002) Another study that dissects the characteristics of pedophiles. This study confirms what similar studies have found: not only do the large majority of pedophiles gain the trust of their victims over an extended period of time before attempting abuse, they often have multiple victims before, if ever getting caught. (This study uses individuals who have admitted to molesting children.)
Civil Commitment: Civil Commitment Without Psychosis (Thomas K. Zander, Psy.D., J.D., Marquette Univ. Law School, 2005) This lengthy but informative study provides an excellent definition of civil commitment and the numerous, glaring issues with such a system. A very scrutinizing look is placed on the circularity of the scope used to determine eligibility for civil commitment and documents the various legal challenges which have been presented throughout the years as to its constitutionality and effectiveness.
Juvenile Sex Offenders: Juveniles Who Commit Sex Offenses Against Minors (US Department of Justice, 2009) An eye-opening report on the prevalence and characteristics of juvenile sexual offenders. Approximately one quarter of all registered sex offenders are children, one third of crimes against children are perpetrated by children, and 1 in 8 child offenders are under the age of 12.
Collateral Damage: Collateral Damage: Family Members of Registered Sex Offenders (Levenson and Tewksbury, Ph.D.s, 2009) Examines and details the destruction of families and loved ones of offenders due to sex crime legislation.
Overly Broad Legislation: You Might Be a Sex Offender If... Some of the examples are so ridiculous, they would be humorous if only it were a joke. Our resources are being taken away from real sex crimes and spent on these - non-sexual, non-forcible, and/or non-deviant acts that have landed individuals on the sex offender registry.
Public Awareness of Sex Crime: Exploring Public Awareness of Sex Crime (Center for Sex Offender Management, 2010) A frustrating look at public awareness and perceptions of sex crime. Not surprisingly, the majority of the public is grossly misinformed on some of the key elements of sex crime.
ESCAPE prides itself on providing non-biased, factual information. If you find any errors or oversights in any of the information cited here, or if you are seeking specific information not covered by the resources provided here, please contact us.